Include

"Include" means making plans for promoting inclusion and reducing inequality
more on disparate impact here

The politics of inclusion
In the wake of the Supreme Court decision in Texas v. Inclusive Communities, the Columbus Dispatch announced "Neighborhood inequality particularly profound in Columbus area." Following the decision it's clear that Columbus and other Ohio communities will need to address inequality both within their boundaries and regionally. The Dispatch article notes: "A report this year ranked Columbus as the second most economically segregated major metro area in the country, after Austin, Texas. And a 2013 study found that Columbus is among the least-promising places in the nation for low-income children to climb the financial ladder."
The Inclusive Communities decision may be a tipping point in efforts to use housing a tool for a more inclusive society. The battlefield over efforts to promote inclusion moves from judicial branch to the more administrative and legislative branches of public policy making. Conservatives cry "social engineering" while progressives welcome the fulfillment of the vision of the 1968 Fair Housing Act, passed in the wake of the assassination of MLK.
Now, charged up by the decision in Texas vs. Inclusive Communities. fair housing progressives are ready to challenge systemic discrimination using housing to promote inclusive communities and social conservatives are moving to cut or bar the use of funding used to promote inclusive communities.
A little history is helpful here. When the Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968 in the wake of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King advocates had a tool to fight discrimination on individual bias and to promote integration by requiring Federally funded programs to promote fair housing as a policy. But as the 60's waned, so did the zeal for promoting open communities. Emily Badger writes in the Washington Post: "We were once blunt about the origins of the American ghetto. A national panel of experts — two senators, a mayor and a governor among them — studied the country's segregated cities at the request of the president and concluded that pervasive white racism and official policy were to blame." The 1960's commitment to address "systemic discrimination" faded as Nixon's victory with the "Southern strategy" took center stage in American policy making beginning in the 1970's through the Reagan-Bush-Clinton eras. Sociologists and policy makers of the time fell in love with a "Culture of Poverty" theory which suggested that the characteristics of African American culture, not access to opportunities, is the main barrier to social advancement.
Meanwhile reality was overtaking the discussion.

Sociological studies have slowly discredited the "Culture of Poverty" theories of the 1970's. Starting with the findings flowing from the Gautreaux Project through the studies supported by the McArthur Foundation under their How Housing Matters initiative social scientists have shown health, educational, and employment benefits of integrated communities. More under Benefits of Deconcentration here.
Fair housing rights are no longer just race based. Fair Housing Act has expanded its coverage over the past 40 years to include families with children, female headed households, persons with disabilities. LGBT households, victims of domestic violence and military families have all gotten "protected" status outside of the FHA. This expansion of coverage has made a broader constituency for inclusive policies.
Success in using "disparate impact analysis" private enforcement efforts against local jurisdictions showed that "neutral" housng policies had the impact of exclusion.
The persistence of housing journalists like Pro Publica's NikoleHannah-Jones, Wonkblog's Emily Badger, and Alexis Stephens
Demographic and economic evolution: As the US inches towards becoming a majority minority country before 2050, business and civic institutions can't permit their employees, customers and members to be segregated by demographic characteristics. As employment pattens move from brick and mortar and geographic localities, the work force needs to be more mobile than ever before. Ironically, many progressive organizations resisted this breakthru decision, fearing that the conservative Supreme Court would end efforts to address systemic discrimination. But with the arrival of the Obama administration in 2008, there was a renewed interest in taking small steps towards reviving the original vision of the Fair Housing Act under the buzz-phrase that "zip code is destiny" (more recently modified to some version of "zip code should not be destiny.") Under Obama's Department of HUD the 1960's notion of "integration" morphed into the 21st century vision of "inclusion". The distinction is important! Integration was often based on social relationships, so that much of the focus of fair housing practice in the 1960-1980's focused on a "human relations" model that was mostly abandoned after Rodney King's comment. Inclusion is built on the principle of access to opportunity. Some examples of HUD's new policy approach include important language in the HUD goals, expansion of housing choice vouchers, selective enforcement efforts like Westchester Co. NY, new policies to deconcentrate public and subsidized housing (RAD, 8bb), Choice Neighborhoods, and new guidance on "disparate impact" and "affirmatively furthering fair housing" (AFFH).
Now with the legal uncertainties resolved by Texas v. Inclusive Communities, rental housing advocates (RHINO tenants & advocates) and community development planners and program managers (Inclusion Partners) need to be asking where from here?

Fighting off efforts to hamstring inclusion tools. Stop SB349; stop Congressional amendments, stop local efforts to block local NIMBY efforts.
Promoting transformative policies of local units of government. Even with new rules for Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (AFFH) , HUD is likely to accept "something" as progress and may be slow to act on passive resistance for fear of igniting more Congressional backlash.
Identify and challenge local "business as usual" policies that inhibit inclusion. Things like residency requirements, MHA "landlord lists", single family and lot size zoning restrictions can inhibit affordable housing development and mobility within a region.
Create inclusive policies and programs. Find ideas here
But if you don't do policy work (RHINO providers or subscribers), why should you care? Here's some situations you may encounter.
When an all white HUD property gets a new African American tenant and the gossip machine cranks up, you can help frame the discussion around inclusion with some basic facts, like: the community is 10% African American and you have 40 units at the property so logically 4 should house African Americans...not as a quota...just as a fact of fairness.
Or when tenants in a "senior" building have younger disabled people and/or grandmas with children, you can help to explain the "senior only" rule and moderate the discussion around inclusion.
Or, when friends, family and others in your social networks tell you that government should stop telling people where to live, you explain that affirmatively furthering fair housing makes"choice" of where to live a reality. Many individual households will decide to stay in communities where they have historic or familial roots. That's choice too. The New York Times wrote in an editorial in support of the "new" initiative towards inclusion. "Critics are already describing the new rules as an example of overreach by the Obama administration. Far from it. The responsibilities laid out in the new rules were part of the Fair Housing Act all along but were ignored over decades by governments at all levels. The tragedy is that this has left the country more divided than it otherwise would have been."
 
What's news in inclusive communities?

July 2, 2018, PRI's Marketplace. Fear of "the other"
PRI's Marketplace looks at a new study of newcomers shunning traditional residents in gentrifying neighborhoods. To his credit, Marketplace reporter links the study to other stories of oldtimers resisting newcomers of a different race. "Once you have the cops coming in and telling people to break up the domino games, they start feeling like they've been betrayed. A lot of the residents who had been living there for a long time told us that they had never heard of anyone coming out and being like, "Oh, can you tone it down?" That kind of communication is what in essence makes for a community in a neighborhood, you know?" A key to both phenomenon is calling the cops to resolve inter-group problems. WNYC's Brian Lehrer show had an insightful interview with Dr. Martha Nussbaum about the "fear" that is gripping both the left and the right. 
Practice Area: Inclusion
Hot Issue:
Keywords: Fear, gentrification, social mobility
Posted July 3, 2018

Your share of Federal funding is at stake. "Estimates from the CDFO show 73 percent of Cleveland’s children, 52 of Columbus’s, 46 percent of Cincinnati’s and 38 percent of Toledo’s young children are at risk of being overlooked."
Keywords: Preserve, Census 2020, federal funds

"Among the concerns raised by the suit are uncovered pools that were allowed to fester, rotting dead animals in yards, trash and debris that went uncollected, damage to the steps and handrails of the properties, graffiti, and 'wildly' overgrown grass and weeds. In some cases, the suit alleges, the properties were so unkempt that they looked abandoned and thus attracted squatters. One of the plaintiffs in the suit says their home was targeted by thieves who were squatting in a neighboring home owned by Bank of America. Other said a rat infestation in a Bank of America-owned home made its way to her home, causing damage."
Keywords: Include, NFHA, Bank of America, foreclosure, fair housing

June 26, 2018, Curbed, "In Portland, a neighborhood designs its own solution to displacement"
"A team of local community organizers, architects, and designers also believe the Albina neighborhood can serve as a model to help reinvest in and restore communities feeling under siege. At the same time as a series of city-initiated housing and investment plans attempts to mitigate the impacts of the city’s rapid growth, the grassroots team’s community-led new design proposal wants to help provide Portland’s black community with new places to “express our culture, benefit from investment through jobs, education and business opportunities, and have ... opportunities to make our lives better.' ”
Keywords: Include, gentrification, displacement, community planning

Keywords: Include, income inequality, demographics

June 22, 2018, PRRAC writes
"New fair housing resource:  New York's Fair Housing Justice Center has released an excellent (and user friendly) "Fair Housing Toolkit" as part of their "Building the Beloved Community" Interfaith initiative. The toolkit includes an overview of the history of housing discrimination and segregation, a section on fair housing rights, a list of educational resources and a set of advocacy tools and a list of specific ways individuals and organizations can promote fair housing."
Keywords: Include, fair housing, 

June 22, 2018, PRI Marketplace, Got questions about disability in America? Here's your resource guide
Keywords: Include, ADA, disability

Sometimes helpful to know the distinction between ADA and Fair Housing Act protections. They can be different or complementary. Example-disability parking spaces at a property management office versus disability spaces for tenants.
Keywords: Include, ADA, disability

Practice area: Include
Keywords: disability, dementia, DC

"After the Crossroads takeover in late 2015, housing activists and community groups across the metropolitan region began meeting regularly to strategize how they could confront the challenges of rising rents and displacement. Soon the Suburban Hennepin Housing Coalition was born—comprised of nearly two dozen community and faith-based groups. Their mission centered on the 'the three P’s'—preservation of affordable housing, production of affordable housing, and protection of tenants."
Keywords: Include, Preserve, density, rental rights, community organizing, affordable, NIMBY

"As millennials moved back to their parents’ homes in the wake of the Great Recession, this demographic shift found itself in the media spotlight. But the reasons for the shift are deeper than that, says Butts. Whether due to changing economic circumstances, increasing cultural diversity that welcomes such arrangements, or the evolving lifestyles of older Americans, more families in the U.S. are embracing more traditional living arrangements. Families may have come together by need, but they stayed together by choice."

September 8, 2016 Science Daily White racism tied to negative health and social outcomes for blacks and whites
      Science Daily reports on a new study which shows the health impacts of white recism. "Living in unabashedly racist communities can shorten the lives of both blacks and whites, according to new research. Researchers compared the racial biases of nearly 1.4 million people nationwide to death rates in more than 1,700 U.S. counties. Their findings suggest that blacks and, to a lesser degree, whites who reside in overtly racist communities are more prone to dying from heart disease and other circulatory diseases."
Want more proof?:Black defendants suffer when a judge’s favorite football team loses 

December 10, 2015 Marketplace Mobility as an economic measure
Many Americans believe that ours is a very economically mobile society, a country where we can still pull ourselves up by our bootstraps. But that's not true. 'Contrary to that common belief, by most measures of mobility, the United States has some of the lowest measures of upward-mobility of any developed country in the world,' said Nathaniel Hendren, a professor of economics at Harvard University. Hendren said the odds that an American kid who is born into the bottom 20 percent of the income scale will make it to the top 20 percent are very low, around seven percent. What's more, he said, the odds of going from rags-to-riches in the U.S. have always been fairly low. A shrinking middle class could make mobility even more rare.





 Notes & Links

Inequality

Social mobility

Economic Mobility

Both/And for Preservation and Integration

Case Studies

Inclusion Toolbox

Protected classes

The politics of inclusion